Volume 11, Issue 2 (6-2022)                   JCHR 2022, 11(2): 117-125 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

alizadeh A, danesh P, maleki A, Javaheri F. Gender Differences in Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes and Related Psychosocial Factors. JCHR. 2022; 11 (2) :117-125
URL: http://jhr.ssu.ac.ir/article-1-791-en.html
1- Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran. , a-alizadeh@pnu.ac.ir
2- Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran.
3- Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract:   (203 Views)
Introduction: Diabetes is one of the chronic diseases which causes other chronic diseases. The incidence of it is increasing in different societies, including Iran.  This study aimed to investigate Gender  differences in incidence of type 2 diabetes and  related psychosocial factors.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 2019 among people with the age group of 20 to 60. All the 600 participants were married and lived in Kerman. Using multi-stage sampling, 300 men and 300 women were selected. Data were collected through a questionnaire which included 3 sections as follows: Social demographic variables, healthy lifestyle variabl and perceived stress variable. Statistical analysis was done through descriptive statistics, Lambda test, Independent sample T -test and Binary Logistic regression. The SPSS 23 was used to perform the data analysis. The significance level of the study was considered to be p=0.05.
Results:    The mean (SD) score of physical activity for women was significantly lower than men: (7.6 (2.3) vs. 8.2 (2.7) (P=0.006) ). In the same vein, the mean (SD) score of healthy diet among women was significantly higher than men:  (18.6 (3) vs. 18 (2.4),( P<0.001) ). The rate of avoidance of tobacco and alcohol consumption among women was significantly higher than men:( 19.4 (1.3) vs. 17.9 (2.6),( P<0.001) ).  results of multiple logistic regression showed that in the group of women, the chance of developing diabetes was significantly related to perceived stress level (OR=1.21), level of sports activities OR=0.48) (and education. Education level and health diet also had a significant effect on men's odds of developing diabetes (OR=0.63, 1.35, respectively).
Conclusion: Among the indicators of healthy lifestyle, doing exercise in women and having a healthy diet in men were effective in predicting the risk of diabetes. In addition, the amount of perceived social stress was one of the most important psychological factors in the development of diabetes just in women. Therefore, it is crucial to recognize the factors affecting diabetes in both men and women separately. and This can be an appropriate analytical instrument for sociologists and health researchers to recognize and focus on this problem as well as for health policy makers to reduce and control harmful factors.
Full-Text [PDF 509 kb]   (90 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (18 Views)  
Review: Research | Subject: General
Received: 2021/07/10 | Accepted: 2022/06/20 | Published: 2022/07/5

1. World Health Organization.2021. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/diabetes.2021(WHO, 2021).
2. IDF DIABETES ATLAS Ninth edition.2019. Available from: https://www.diabetes atlas.org/upload/resources/material/20200302_133351_IDFATLAS9e-final-web.pdf.
3. https://behdasht.gov.ir
4. Esteghamati A, Larijani B, Aghajani MH, Ghaemi F, Kermanchi J, Shahrami A, et al. Diabetes in Iran: prospective analysis from first Nationwide diabetes report of National Program for prevention and control of diabetes (NPPCD- 2016). Sci Rep. 2017;7(1): 34-61. [Persian] [DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-13379-z]
5. Alizadeh, Mahasti, Ghanbari. Study of the relationship between lifestyle and social factors in diabetic patients, health image. 2018; 9 (2): 115-108. [Persian]
6. Cockerham, W.C. Bourdieu and an Update of Health Lifestyle Theory, In Cockerham,W.C. (ed) Medical Sociology on the Move. London: Springer.2013. [DOI:10.1007/978-94-007-6193-3]
7. Roglic G, Unwin N, Bennett PH, Mathers C, Tuomilehto J, Nag S, et al. The burden of mortality attributable to diabetes: realistic estimates for the year 2000. Diabetes Care. 2005; 28(9):2130-5. [DOI:10.2337/diacare.28.9.2130]
8. Ahmadi, Yaghoub, Hossein Mohammadzadeh, Simin Ali Zamani. The relationship between capital types and health-centered lifestyle in women in Sanandaj. Social Welfare Quarterly.2016;16 (61): 23-42. [Persian]
9. Williams ED, Magliano DJ, Tapp RJ, Oldenburg BF, Shaw JE. Psychosocial Stress Predicts Abnormal Glucose Metabolism: The Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab) Study. Ann. Behav. Med. 2013;46: 62-72. [DOI:10.1007/s12160-013-9473-y]
10. Joshua J. J , Golden S H. Cortisol dysregulation: the bidirectional link between stress, depression, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2017; 4(1): 20-34. [DOI:10.1111/nyas.13217]
11. Stults-Kolehmainen, M.A., Sinha, R. The Effects of Stress on Physical Activity and Exercise.Sports Medicine . 2014; 44(2): 81-121. [DOI:10.1007/s40279-013-0090-5]
12. Bergmann N, Gyntelberg F, Faber J. The appraisal of chronic stress and the development of the metabolic syndrome: a systematic review of prospective cohort studies. Endocr Connect.2014; 3(2): 55-80. [DOI:10.1530/EC-14-0031]
13. Novak M, Bjorck L, Giang KW, Heden-Stahl C, Wilhelmsen L, Rosengren A. Perceived stress and inci-dence of type 2 diabetes: a 35-year follow-up study of middle-aged Swedish men. Diabet Med. 2013; 30(2) :8-16. [DOI:10.1111/dme.12037]
14. Walsh R.lifestyle and Mental Health. American Psychologist. 2011; 66(7): 392-579. [DOI:10.1037/a0021769]
15. Tracey ML, McHugh SM, Buckley CM, Canavan RJ, Fitzgerald AP, Kearney PM. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes and related complications in a nationally representative sample of adults aged 50 and over in the Republic of Ireland. Diabet Med. 2016; 33(4):441-445. [DOI:10.1111/dme.12845]
16. Nordstrom A, Hadrevi J, Olsson T, Franks PW, Nordstrom P. Higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes in men than in women is associated with differences in visceral fat mass. J Clin Endocrinol Metab . 2016 ; 101(10):3740-3746. [DOI:10.1210/jc.2016-1915]
17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Diabetes Statistics Report.2019. Available from: www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pdfs/data/statistics/national-diabetes-statistics-report.pdf.
18. Mirzaei M, Rahmaninan M, Ali Dehghani tafti A,. Nadjarzadeh A, BMC Public Health. 2020; 20:166. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-8267-y [DOI:10.1186/s12889-020-8267-y [Persian]]
19. Moghimi-Dehkordi B, Safaee A, Vahedi M, Pourhoseingholi A, Pourhoseingholi M, Ashtari S, et al. Overweight and obesity and related factors in urban Iranian population aged between 20 to 84 years. Ann MedHealth Sci Res.2013;3(2):171-6. https://doi.org/10.4103/2141-9248.113656 [DOI:10.4103/2141-9248.113656. [Persian]]
20. Mueller,J ohn Hery, Schuessler K.F, Costner H.K. Statistical Reasoning in Sociology. Translated by Houshang Naibi. 6rd ed.Tehran: Ney Publication.2015; 447-447.[Persian]
21. Ghaderi M, Maleki A, Haghjoo M. The Role of Social Capital in Promoting Healthy Lifestyle among People with Vascular Disease. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. 2015; 4(2): 24-35. [Persian]
22. Atlas of Diseases, Ministry of Health Publications.2019. [Persian]
23. Navipour, E and et al. Prediction of factors associated with type 2 diabetes using logistic regression. Journal of Knowledge and Health.2017; 12( 2). [Persian]
24. Zareipour, Morad Ali, Khair Mohammad Jadgal .Evaluation of the relationship between perceived stress and blood sugar levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Health Rahavard. 2015; 2(4):130-138. [Persian]
25. Riazi A, Pickup J, Bradley C. Dailystress and glycaemic control in Type 1diabetes: individual differences in magnitude, direction, and timing of stressreactivity.Diabetes research and clinicalpractice.2004 ;66(3):237-44. [DOI:10.1016/j.diabres.2004.04.001]
26. Davazdah Emami, Mohammad .Hassan et al. The effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral stress management training on blood sugar control and depression in type 2 diabetic patients." Iranian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, 2011; 11(4): 392-385. [Persian]
27. Elstad E. Living with Ma'I Suka. individual, familial, cultural, and environmental stress among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and their caregivers in American Samoa. J Prev Chronic Dis. 2008; 5(3) : 79-84.
28. Harris ML, Oldmeadow C, Hure A, Luu J, Loxton D, Attia J . Stress increases the risk of type 2 diabetes onset in women: A 12-year longitudinal study using causal modelling. PLoS ONE. 2017; 12(2). doi:10.1371/journal pone.0172126. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0172126]
29. Damari B, Almadani SH, Hajebi A, Salehi Shahrabi N. Promoting Mental Health in Workplaces of Iran; Reviewing Present Status and Future Approaches. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology.2019; 25(2): 122-135. [Persian] [DOI:10.32598/ijpcp.25.2.122]
30. Edenfield, T. M., & Blumenthal, J. A. Exercise and stress reduction. In R. J. Contrada & A. Baum (Eds.), The handbook of stress science: Biology, psychology, and health .Springer Publishing Company. 2011;301-319.
31. Tale, Azar,et al. Evaluation of socio-economic factors in type 2 diabetic patients and disease-related outcomes in affiliated hospitals. 2010;10(2). [Persian]
32. Mahmoudi, H, et al.Study of health literacy and its relationship with the consequences of diabetes in patients with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Urmia School of Nursing and Midwifery, 201312(1). [Persian]
33. McCleary-Jones V. Health literacy and its association with diabetes knowledge, self-efficacy and disease self-management among African Americans with diabetes mellitus. ABNF J. 2011; 22(2):25-
34. Rahimi et al. The level of knowledge and practice about self-care in diabetic patients in Kermanshah, Journal of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences. 2015;14(2) . [Persian]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2022 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Journal of Community Health Research

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb