Volume 10, Issue 2 (Apr- June 2021)                   JCHR 2021, 10(2): 117-127 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

kermanian S, Golshani F, Baghdasarians A, Jomhari F. The mediating role of perfectionism in relation to narcissism and early trauma, family functioning and perceived parenting styles. JCHR 2021; 10 (2) :117-127
URL: http://jhr.ssu.ac.ir/article-1-698-en.html
1- 1. Department of General Psychology. Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2- 2. Department of Psychology, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (1942 Views)
Introduction: Elevated narcissism in young people often sets up a cascade of interpersonal and mental health challenges which needs to understand its concomitants. This study aimed to explain the structural model of narcissism based on early trauma, family function and perceived parenting styles with the mediating role of perfectionism.
Methods: This was an analytical cross-sectional study. The statistical population of the present study consisted of 20-45 year-old males and females referring to psychological clinics of Tehran in 2018-19. A sample of 350 people was also selected using convenience sampling method. Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), the McMaster family assessment device, and Perceptions of Parents Scale (POPS) were used to collect the data. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, including mean, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis using SPSS-22 software and structural equation modeling was used by Amos-24 doftware. The level of significant was (p<0.05).
Results: Comparative Fit index (CFI) was 0.923, Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI), and Incremental Fit Index (IFI) was appropriate; since it exceeded 0.90. Also, the Root Mean Square Error Approximation (RMSEA) was 0.075 was in the acceptable range. Based on the path findings, the fitted model showed a positive impact of early life trauma on perfectionism (p<0.01, β= 0.12), the functioning of the family (p<0.01, β= 0.21), and the style of parenting (β= 0.29, p<0.01). Narcissism had a positive impact on family functioning (p<0.01, β = 0.40) directly from early life trauma (p <0.01, β = 0.18).  
Conclusion: As the experience of trauma increases early in life, the likelihood of developing perfectionist tendencies increases. This indicates that the better the parenting style and the better the family functioning, the lower the level of perfectionism.
Full-Text [PDF 643 kb]   (970 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (530 Views)  
Review: Research | Subject: Health care management
Received: 2020/11/5 | Accepted: 2021/03/20 | Published: 2021/07/1

1. 1. Edery RA. The Traumatic Effects of Narcissistic Parenting on a Sensitive Child: A Case Analysis. Health Science Journal. 2019;13(1):1-3. [DOI:10.21767/1791-809X.1000626]
2. Mosquera D, Gonzalez A. Narcissism as a consequence of trauma and early experiences. ESTD Newsletter. 2011;1(2):4-6.
3. Caligor E, Stern BL. Diagnosis, Classification, and Assessment of Narcissistic Personality Disorder Within the Framework of Object Relations Theory. Journal of Personality Disorders. 2020;34(Supplement):104-21.
4. Mosquera D, Knipe J. Understanding and treating narcissism with EMDR therapy. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research. 2015;9(1):46-63. [DOI:10.1891/1933-3196.9.1.46]
5. Abolghasemi S, Tavakoli Azad J, Biabani Asli M, et al. The Relationship Between Family Function, Perfectionism and Hidden Anxiety of Students. Avicenna Journal of Neuro Psycho Physiology. 2018; 5 (3) :107- 12. [DOI:10.32598/ajnpp.5.3.107]
6. Rohner RP, Filus A, Melendez-Rhodes T, et al. Psychological Maladjustment Mediates the Relation Between Remembrances of Parental Rejection in Childhood and Adults' Fear of Intimacy: A Multicultural Study. Cross-Cultural Research. 2019;53(5):508-542. [DOI:10.1177/1069397118822992]
7. Brummelman E, Gürel Ç, Thomaes S, et al. What separates narcissism from self-esteem? A social-cognitive perspective. InHandbook of Trait Narcissism 2018 (pp. 47-55). Springer, Cham. [DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-92171-6_5]
8. Van Schie CC, Jarman HL, Huxley E, et al. Narcissistic traits in young people: understanding the role of parenting and maltreatment. Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation. 2020; 7: 10. [DOI:10.1186/s40479-020-00125-7]
9. Csathó Á, Birkás B. Early-life stressors, personality development, and fast life strategies: An evolutionary perspective on malevolent personality features. Frontiers in Psychology. 2018; 9:305. [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00305]
10. Miller AL, Speirs Neumeister KL. The influence of personality, parenting styles, and perfectionism on performance goal orientation in high ability students. Journal of Advanced Academics. 2017; 28(4):313-44. [DOI:10.1177/1932202X17730567]
11. Claudio L. Can parenting styles affect the children's development of narcissism? A Systematic Review. The Open Psychology Journal. 2016; 9(1). [DOI:10.2174/1874350101609010084]
12. Murphy S, McElroy E, Elklit A, et al. Child maltreatment and psychiatric outcomes in early adulthood. Child Abuse Review. 2020; 29(4): 365-78. [DOI:10.1002/car.2619]
13. Beal SJ, Kashikar-Zuck S, King C, et al. Heightened risk of pain in young adult women with a history of childhood maltreatment: a prospective longitudinal study. Pain. 2020;161(1):156-65. [DOI:10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001706]
14. Huxley E, Bizumic B. Parental invalidation and the development of narcissism. The Journal of Psychology. 2017;151(2):130-47. [DOI:10.1080/00223980.2016.1248807]
15. Kealy D, Laverdière O, Cox DW, et al. Childhood emotional neglect and depressive and anxiety symptoms among mental health outpatients: the mediating roles of narcissistic vulnerability and shame. Journal of Mental Health. 2020:1-9. [DOI:10.1080/09638237.2020.1836557]
16. Kline RB. Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. Guilford publications. 2015.
17. Gul M, Aqeel M, Akhtar T, et al. The Moderating Role of Perfectionism on the Relationship between Parenting styles and Personality Disorders in Adolescents. Foundation University Journal of Psychology. 2019;3(2).
18. Raskin R, Hall CS. The Narcissistic Personality Inventory: Alternative form reliability and further evidence of construct validity. Journal of personality assessment. 1981;45(2):159-62. [DOI:10.1207/s15327752jpa4502_10]
19. Soyer RB, Rovenpor JL, Kopelman RE, et al. Further assessment of the construct validity of four measures of narcissism: Replication and extension. The Journal of Psychology. 2001;135(3):245-58.'
20. Hassanzadeh F, Akhani A, Asgharnejad Farid A. Psychometric Properties of Brief Version of Pathological Narcissism Inventory. Journal of Neyshabur University Medical Sciences. 2020; 8 (1) :77-87.[Persian]
21. Bernstein DP, Ahluvalia T, Pogge D, et al. Validity of the childhood trauma questionnaire in an adolescent psychiatric population. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 1997;36(3):340-8. [DOI:10.1097/00004583-199703000-00012]
22. Zarrati I, Bermas H, Sabet M. The Relationship Between Childhood Trauma and Suicide Ideation: Mediating Role of Mental Pain. Annals of Military and Health Sciences Research. 2019;17(1):e89266.
23. Epstein NB, Baldwin LM, Bishop DS. The McMaster family assessment device. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy. 1983; 9(2):171-80. [DOI:10.1111/j.1752-0606.1983.tb01497.x]
24. Zadeh Mohammadi A, Malek Khosravi GH. Preliminary Investigation of Psychometric Properties and Validation of Family Functioning Scale (FAD). Journal of Family Research. 2006; 2 (5): 69-89. [Persian]
25. Grolnick WS, Deci EL, Ryan RM. Internalization within the family: The self-determination theory perspective.In J. E. Grusec & L. Kuczynski (Eds.), Parenting and children's internalization of values: A handbook of contemporary theory. 1997:135-161.
26. Karshki H. The role of motivational models and environmental perceptions in learning self-regulation in male third-year high-school students. InFaculty of Psychology & Educational Science. 2008.
27. Hewitt PL, Flett GL. Perfectionism in the self and social contexts: conceptualization, assessment, and association with psychopathology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1991; 60(3):456. [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.60.3.456]
28. Zarbakhsh M, Hassanzadeh S, Abolghasemi S, et al. Relationship between perceived parenting styles and critical thinking with cognitive learning styles. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research. 2012; 2(10):10007-11.
29. Aminizadeh S, Dolatshahi B, Pourshahbaz A, et al. Psychometric properties of multidimensional perfectionism scale (MPS). Practice in Clinical Psychology. 2013; 1(4): 205-210.
30. Tyler J, Mu W, McCann J, et al. The unique contribution of perfectionistic cognitions to anxiety disorder symptoms in a treatment-seeking sample. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. 2020:1-7.
31. Flett GL, Hewitt PL. The perfectionism pandemic meets COVID-19: understanding the stress, distress, and problems in living for perfectionists during the global health crisis. Journal of Concurrent Disorders. 2020;2(1):80-105.
32. Flett GL, Molnar DS, Hewitt PL. The traumatized perfectionist: understanding the role of perfectionism in post-traumatic reactions to stress. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health and Human Resilience. 2016; 18(1):764-765. [DOI:10.4172/1522-4821.1000319]
33. Edalatjoo A, Mahdian H, Mohammadipour M. The relationship between parenting styles and academic self-handicapping through the mediating role of metacognitive and perfectionism skills. Iranian Journal of Educational Sociology. 2019; 2(3):56-66. [DOI:10.29252/ijes.2.3.56]
34. Sahraee OA, Yusefnejad M, Khosravipur E. Relation of family efficiency with positive and negative perfectionism in Iranian students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2011; 30:844-50. [DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.10.164]
35. Smith MM, Sherry SB, Chen S, et al. Perfectionism and narcissism: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Research in Personality. 2016; 64:90-101. [DOI:10.1016/j.jrp.2016.07.012]
36. Casale S, Fioravanti G, Rugai L, et al. The interpersonal expression of perfectionism among grandiose and vulnerable narcissists: Perfectionistic self-presentation, effortless perfection, and the ability to seem perfect. Personality and Individual Differences. 2016; 99:320-4. [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2016.05.026]
37. Flett GL, Sherry SB, Hewitt PL, et al. Understanding the narcissistic perfectionists among us: Grandiosity, vulnerability, and the quest for the perfect self. Handbook of psychology of narcissism: Diverse perspectives. 2014:43-66.
38. Stoeber J, Sherry SB, Nealis LJ. Multidimensional perfectionism and narcissism: Grandiose or vulnerable? Personality and Individual Differences. 2015; 80:85-90. [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.02.027]
39. Burke TJ, Segrin C, Farris KL. Young adult and parent perceptions of facilitation: Associations with over parenting, family functioning, and student adjustment. Journal of Family Communication. 2018;18(3):233-47. [DOI:10.1080/15267431.2018.1467913]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY 4.0 | Journal of Community Health Research

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb