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Taherzadeh Chenani K, Madadizadeh F. Popular Statistical Tests for Investigating the Relationship between Two Variables in Medical Research. JCHR 2020; 9 (1) :1-3

URL: http://jhr.ssu.ac.ir/article-1-619-en.html

URL: http://jhr.ssu.ac.ir/article-1-619-en.html

2- Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran ,

Recently, using statistical tests as useful and ubiquitous tools in medical data analysis is increasing (1). However, some researchers are using statistical methods without sufficient knowledge. The purpose of this letter is to provide applied information on some of the most commonly used statistical tests.

All statistical tests examine a hypothesis. A hypothesis is defined as a claim that its accuracy or inaccuracy is unknown (2). In general, variables are divided into quantitative and qualitative categories (3). Some popular statistical tests that examine the relationship between two or more variables are summarized bellow according to the main purpose of this article.

**Investigating the linear relationship between two quantitative variables: correlation coefficient test**

tests such as the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk tests (5). The null hypothesis in the normality tests is that the distribution of errors in the variable is normal. If the null hypothesis is rejected (p value<significant level), it means that the distribution of errors in the variable is non normal (5). After the normality check of the errors in the variables, if both variables had a normal distribution, Pearson's correlation coefficient would be a good choice and Spearman correlation coefficient would be used if one of the two variables had non normal distribution (6).

**Investigating the relationship between two qualitative variables: Chi-square test**

**Investigating the relationship between a quantitative variable and a two independent-level qualitative variable: Independent-Samples T-test and Mann-Whitney U test**

Independent-Samples T-Test compares the mean of a quantitative variable during two independent level of a qualitative variable. The null hypothesis in this test is the mean equality during the qualitative variable levels (4). If the data are low (less than 20) or the distribution of errors in the quantitative variable does not follow the normal distribution, the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test will be replaced comparing the median of the quantitative variables in two groups. In reporting nonparametric test results instead of the mean and standard deviation, median and interquartile range (IQR) are used (4).

**Investigating the relationship between a quantitative variable and a two dependent -level qualitative variable (before-after): paired Samples T-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test**

**Investigating the relationship between a quantitative variable and a qualitative variable with more than two independent levels: one-way**

If the qualitative variable has more than two levels, to investigating the relation with a quantitative variable one-way analysis of variance (one way-ANOVA) or Kruskal-Wallis tests are used for independent levels (3).

One-way ANOVA test investigates the relationship between a more than two independent -level qualitative variable with a quantitative variable when the null hypothesis in this test means the equality of the mean of the quantitative variable in different levels of the qualitative variable (3, 4, and 7). If the data is low (less than 20) or the distribution of errors in the variable does not follow the normal distribution, the alternative nonparametric test will be the Kruskal-Wallis

test. Kruskal-Wallis test also compares the median of quantitative variables at qualitative variable levels (7).

**Investigating the relationship between a quantitative variable and a qualitative variable with more than two dependent levels: one-way repeated measures ANOVA or Friedman test**

Each statistical test has its place and application. Medical researchers with knowing the proper use of statistical tests, can improve the quality of their research; therefore, they can improve the health and medical status of the community.

Review: Letter to The Editor |
Subject:
Epidemiology

Received: 2020/03/16 | Accepted: 2020/04/5 | Published: 2020/03/29

Received: 2020/03/16 | Accepted: 2020/04/5 | Published: 2020/03/29

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