Volume 6, Issue 4 (Oct-Dec 2017)                   JCHR 2017, 6(4): 223-228 | Back to browse issues page

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Mohammadzadeh M, Awang H, Ismail S, Kadir Shahar H. Establishing Content and Face Validity of a Developed Educational Module: Life Skill-Based Education for Improving Emotional Health and Coping Mechanisms among Adolescents in Malaysian Orphanages . JCHR. 2017; 6 (4) :223-228
URL: http://jhr.ssu.ac.ir/article-1-394-en.html
1- Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health sciences, University Putra Malaysia , scarlet.458@gmail.com
2- Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Health sciences, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia
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Establishing Content and Face Validity of a Developed Educational Module: Life
Skill-Based Education for Improving Emotional Health and Coping Mechanisms among Adolescents in Malaysian Orphanages
 
Marjan Mohammadzadeh 1*, Hamidin Awang 2, Suriani Ismail 1, Hayati Kadir Shahar 1
 
  1. Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia scarlet.458@gmail.com
  2. Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Health sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia
 
ARTICLE INFO   ABSTRACT
Original
Received: 14 Oct 2017
Accepted: 3 Dec 2017
   
Introduction: The current study as a part of our investigation on improving emotional and behavioural health in Malaysian orphanages was aimed to establish Content Validity Index (CVI) as well as Face Validity of a new life skill-based module for improving emotional health and coping mechanisms in Malaysian Institutionalised Adolescents of 2 different orphanages.
Methods: In order to assess the content validity we used a 16-item questionnaire. The initial version of the module was reviewed by 9 experts in the area.  Then, the face validity of the module was assessed among 30 adolescents aged 14-17 from 2 different orphanages. By Using Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS21) and Brief COPE scale as the study instruments, the emotional heath and coping mechanisms among the participants  were investigated before and after a life skills workshop (pre- and post-test). The activities in the workshop were randomly selected from the module activities.
Results: The Results of the first part of  the study showed that the minimum Value of the Item-level Content Validity Index and the computed  sum of items (S-CVI) for the study module were 0.78 and 0.93 respectively. The results of the second part of the study showed that the selected activities from module significantly change the coping mechanisms expect substance use, behavior disengagement, venting, humor and religion (p > 0.05). Furthermore, the mean score of anxiety (t = 5.39, P < 0.001) and stress (t = 3.90, P < 0.001) significantly decreased among the participants in post-test but there was no significant change on the mean score of depression (t = 0.50, P = 0.59).
Conclusion: both contend and face validity of the developed module were approved.
 
Keywords: Content validity; Face validity; Life skills education; Health education; Malaysian institutionalised adolescents
 
 

 
 
 
Corresponding Author:
Marjan Mohammadzadeh
 

How to cite this paper:

Mohammadzadeh M, Awang H, Ismail S, Kadir Shahar H. Establishing Content and Face Validity of a Developed Educational Module: Life Skill-Based Education for Improving Emotional Health and Coping Mechanisms among Adolescents in Malaysian Orphanages. J Community Health Research. 2017; 6(4): 223-8.

Introduction
Institutionalised children and adolescents are at  the highest increased risk of serious psychological problems in their lifetime and exhibit various psychological, emotional and behavioural problems such as coping and adjustment problems, aggression, personality problems, low self-esteem, depression and stress(1, 2).  By considering the several mental and behavioural health issues among adolescents living in orphanages that require serious attention, the early detection of mental health challenges is important and can minimize these problems in adulthood (3).
 A host of prevention and intervention programmes have been developed to enhance the mental health of the institutionalised children set. Life skills education (LSE) is one of them and refers to a large group of emotional, social and interpersonal skills that help individuals decide wisely, communicate effectively, improve their personal management skills and have healthy and fruitful lives (4, 5).
The lack of life skills-based education and appropriate information and skills to cope with the unique life changes during the period of adolescence, place Malaysian adolescents at higher risk of mental and behavioural problems such as depression, substance abuse, juvenile delinquency and bullying. (6, 7). Therefore, it is necessary to develop and implement the appropriate programs and plans to equip them with sufficient coping skills to address these problems (8). Undoubtedly, the need for life skills education for vulnerable Malaysian adolescents, including institutionalised adolescents, is much higher than that of their average peers (9).
Life skills education is  new built in Malaysia and there is no systematic life skills training for the children and adolescents living in orphanages   and even in schools in many cases(5, 10).Therefore, as one of the vital steps to develop any new educational program is the validity of the program, this study as a part of our investigation on improving emotional and behavioural health in Malaysian orphanages was aimed to establish Content Validity Index (CVI) as well as Face Validity of a new life skill-based modulefor improving emotional health and coping mechanisms in Malaysian Institutionalised Adolescents.
Methods
The current intervention module was developed based on WHO program on LSE (WHO, 1986) in the form of “Training guideline for trainers” booklet through a process of consultation with the experts in the study field and based on WHO and UNICEF recommendation of teaching life skills.  At the first step, according to study objectives, the specific requirements of target population, the study environment, the local culture, ethnic and religious differences and similarities of the target population and time limitation, after putting the sources, references and data together, in a process of approximately 5 months, 40 preliminary activities were developed and/or adopted from some available LSE handbooks, booklets, activity guideline and WHO’s life skills education frameworks in other countries. Next, after a process of re-assessment, 20 activities were selected to include the training booklet.
Content and face validity tests were conducted to finalize the training module in the last stage:
  1. Content validity: The Item-level Content Validity Index (I-CVI) and The Content Validity Index for Scales (S-CVI) were utilized to calculate the content validity of the module  by using Following formulas (11, 12):
I-CVI= the number of experts giving a rating of either 3 or 4/ the total number of experts;
S-CVI= the sum of I-CVIs/ the number of items
In order to assess the CVI of the interventional module, the initial version of the module was reviewed by 9 experts in children and adolescents psychiatry, psychology, education and community health from University Putra Malaysia as well as experienced local high school teachers using a questionnaire (Table 1) containing 16 questions based on the developed module ranged 1(not relevant) to 4 (highly relevant).According to Lynn (1986), the minimum I-CVI of 0.77 (for 6 to 10 experts) and the minimum S-CVI of 0.90 are requested for an excellent content validity (13).
  1. Face validity: Using Paired Samples t-Test (SPSS 22), the face validity assessment was done
    to check the understandability, intelligibility and suitability of the activities. Five activities were randomly selected from the booklet and tested among 30 adolescents aged 14-17 years living in an orphanage during 3 educational sessions, each lasting one hour and a half. A semi-experimental pilot study with pre- and post- tests was done to investigate the effects of the selected activities on emotional health (depression, anxiety and stress)and coping mechanisms (based on Brief COPE scale) among the participants using validated Malay version of Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS21) and Brief COPE questionnaires:
  • Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS21): The DASS21 is the short version of the DASS24, designed by Lovibond and Lovibond (1995) to measure negative effects (depression, anxiety and stress) (14). Each of the three sets of the DASS21 scales includes 7 items with a 4-point Likert scale (15). The minimum and maximum DASS21 scores are 0 and 21 for each subscale, respectively. Higher scores indicate higher levels of problems.
  • Brief COPE scale: This self-report questionnaire consists of 28 statements with a4-point Likert scale to evaluate 14 different ways of coping with stressful situations. The minimum and maximum scores of the original Brief COPE questionnaire for each subscale including acceptance, using emotional support, humour, positive reframing and religion, active coping, using instrumental support and planning, behavioural disengagement, denial, self-distraction, self-blame, substance use and venting are 2 and 8, respectively.
Table 1. The Sixteen-itemed Questionnaire based on the developed LSE module
Item Not
Relevant1
Somewhat
relevant2
Quiet
Relevant3
Highly
Relevant4
  1. The activities are relevant to study’s objectives
       
  1. The activities appropriately cover the study’s objectives
       
  1. The number of activities is sufficient (according to study’s objective)
       
  1. The activities are easy to understand for the target group
       
  1. The activities do not need  any specific background
       
  1. The activities have enough and understandable details
       
  1. The details of activities  clearly represent the concepts
       
  1. The module has logical arrangement and sequence of knowledge development
       
  1. The module has accurate content
       
  1. The module can be used by trainers with minimum knowledge of life skills education
       
  1. The activities are adopted efficiently with the local culture
       
  1. The activities are clearly written
       
  1. The activities are suitable for adolescents
       
  1. The activities are executable with minimum facilities and equipment
       
  1. Overall, the module has clear graphic, font and sufficient pictures 
       
  1. Overall, the module is developed sufficiently regarding to the study’s objectives and target group
       
 
Results
Content Validity
The minimum I-CVI and the computed S-CVI for the study module were 0.78 and 0.93,respectively (Table 2). The minimum value of I-CVI was given to items 5, 10 and 11 (0.78) and Items 1-4 and 12-16 had the complete value (1.00) (Table 2). 
Table 2. The ranking of the questionnaire’s items according to the experts (n=9)
Item Number of Agreement (ranked 3 or 4) I-CVI
1 9 1.00
2 9 1.00
3 9 1.00
4 9 1.00
5 7 0.78
6 8 0.89
7 8 0.89
8 8 0.89
9 8 0.89
10 7 0.78
11 7 0.78
12 8 1.00
13 9 1.00
14 9 1.00
15 9 1.00
16 9 1.00
  S-CVI (Based on mean): 0.93
 
Therefore, the results of the assessments showed that the majority of the experts believed that the module was valid according to the study population and objectives. However, the essential changes were applied based on the experts’ recommendation such as improving the activities details and steps, adding picture to the module as well as highlighting the target life skill(s) in each session.
Face Validity
Most of the participants in both groups were female (19 females vs. 11 males) with Malay ethnicity (14 Malay vs. 7 Chinese and 9 Indian). Although the participants did not live with their parents, 40.2% of them had at least one living parent.
Using Paired Samples t-Test, the results showed that the mean score of 6 coping methods including active coping (t=-5.85, P<0.001), using of emotional supports(t=-4.80, P<0.001), using of instrumental support (t=-4.89, P<0.001), positive reframing(t=-3.89, P<0.001), planning(t=-4.91, P<0.001) and acceptance (t=-5.98, P<0.001) methods significantly increased after interventional sessions. Meanwhile, the mean score of 3 coping methods including self-distraction (t=5.43, P<0.001), denial (t = 2.80, P<0.02) and self-blame (t=7.24, P < 0.001) significantly decreased in post-test. No significant change was found in mean score of substance use, behavior disengagement, venting, humor and religion (p>0.05).

 
Table 3.The mean score of study variables before and after intervention (n=30)
Variable Before Intervention After Intervention t-value P-value
Coping Methods        
Self-distraction 6.10 ± 1.78 5.09 ± 1.59 5.43 <0.001 ⃰
Active coping 4.05 ± 1.34 5.20 ± 1.69 -5.87 <0.001 ⃰
Denial 6.50±1.07 5.84±1.17 2.80 0.02*
Substance use 4.90±1.81 4.83±1.67 -1.58 0.11  
Use of emotional support 4.90 ± 1.60 5.89 ± 1.58 -4.80 <0.001 ⃰  
Behavioral disengagement 6.45±1.11 6.17±1.30 1.93 0.06  
Venting 4.59±1.60 4.68±1.65 -0.46 0.65  
Use of instrumental support 5.18 ± 1.71 6.09 ± 1.81 -4.89 <0.001 ⃰  
Positive reframing 4.80 ±1.87 5.47 ± 1.39 -3.89 <0.001 ⃰  
Self-blame 5.30 ± 1.58 4.23 ± 1.46 7.24 <0.001 ⃰  
Planning 5.10 ± 1.60 6.01 ± 1.58 -4.91 <0.001 ⃰  
Humor 5.00±1.39 5.15±1.32 -0.92 0.36  
Acceptance 4.38 ± 1.87 5.32 ± 1.52 -5.98 <0.001 ⃰  
Religion 5.10±1.76 5.24±1.72 -0.66 0.61  
Emotional Problems          
Depression 8.36±2.65 8.28±2.21 0.50 0.59  
Anxiety 8.53±3.78 7.52±2.90 5.39 <0.001 ⃰  
Stress 10.55±2.91 9.86±3.10 3.90 <0.001 ⃰  
Score rate: Min 2, Max 8 (Coping Methods) and Min 0, Max 21 (Emotional Problems);  *Significant at level     p<0.05
 
Furthermore, after finishing the interventional program, the mean score of anxiety (t = 5.39,
P < 0.001) and stress (t=3.90, P < 0.001) significantly decreased among the participants but there was no significant change on the mean score of depression (t = 0.50, P = 0.59) (Table 3).
Discussion
The results of the current study approved the content and face validity of the developed life skill based module for improving emotional health and coping strategies among Malaysian adolescents living in the orphanages. The results of the Item-level Content Validity Index (I-CVI) and The Content Validity Index for Scales
(S-CVI) showed the content validity of the module was accepted from the experts’ viewpoint. Furthermore, the results of the second part of the study (semi-experimental with pre- and post- tests) showed the participants’ emotional health and coping methods could be effected positively by the activities developed in the module. Extending the educational sessions using all activities included in the module may be more effective on the emotional and behavioural health in Malaysian Orphanages.
This educational module was developed to be used as the guideline of the first life skill-base intervention in Malaysian orphanages. Due to the importance and magnitude of the problems of children and adolescents in orphanages, this educational model is intended to help policymakers; practitioners in the health field, caregivers in orphanages and teachers to pay special attention to life skills education  for promoting healthier youth and the Malaysian community.
Conclusion
The current study was aimed to assess content validity index (CVI) as well as face validity of a new life skill-based module for improving emotional health and coping mechanisms among adolescents living in Malaysian Orphanages. Overall, the results of the part one and part two of this study showed that the designed life
skill-based educational module was a valid program can be used as a guideline of the
life skill-based education for adolescents in Malaysian orphanages.
Acknowledgement
This study was funded by University Putra Malaysia, Grant numbers: 9368800. Permission to conduct the study was obtained from the ethical committee of the University Putra Malaysia. The orphanages directors, and all respondents and their caregivers were informed



about the objective of the study. A written consent form was obtained from all respondents and the caregivers.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
 

 
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Review: Research | Subject: Health education
Received: 2017/10/14 | Accepted: 2017/12/18 | Published: 2017/12/18

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